Hinweise zur Vorbereitung auf einen Vulkanausbruch

You can do many things to protect yourself and your family/friends/colleagues from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. The best way to do protect yourself and your family/friends/colleagues is to follow the advice of local officials. Local authorities will provide you with information on how to prepare for a volcanic eruption, and if necessary, on how to evacuate (leave the area) or take shelter where you are.

Here are some informations what to do
- before
- during
- after and
- in case you are a person with special needs or disabilities.

Before volcanic eruption

How to prepare:

Develop an evacuation plan for yourself in consideration of the evacuation plan for our hotel. Review the plan and make sure that everyone understands it.

If you haven’t already done so, put together an emergency supply kit. Supplies should include the following:

  • Flashlight and extra batteries
  • First aid kit and manual
  • Emergency food and water
  • Manual (nonelectric) can opener
  • Essential medicines
  • Sturdy shoes
  • Respiratory (breathing) protection
  • Eye protection (goggles)
  • Battery-powered radio

Exposure to ash can harm your health, particularly the breathing tract!
To protect yourself while you are outdoors or while you are cleaning up ash that has gotten indoors, use an N-95 disposable respirator (also known as an “air purifying respirator”). N-95 respirators can be purchased at businesses such as hardware stores. It is important to follow directions for proper use of this respirator.

If you don’t have an N-95 respirator, you can protect yourself by using a nuisance dust mask as a last resort, but you should stay outdoors for only short periods while dust is falling. Nuisance dust masks can provide comfort and relief from exposure to relatively non-hazardous contaminants such as pollen, but they do not offer as much protection as an N-95 respirator.

If you are told to evacuate:

Follow authorities’ instructions if they tell you to leave the area. Though it may seem safe to stay at the hotel and wait out an eruption, doing so could be very dangerous. Volcanoes spew hot, dangerous gases, ash, lava, and rock that are powerfully destructive.

Preparing to evacuate:

  • Tune in the radio or television for volcano updates.
  • Listen for disaster sirens and warning signals.
  • Review your emergency plan and gather your emergency supplies. Be sure to pack at least a 1-week supply of prescription medications.
  • Prepare an emergency kit for your vehicle with food, flares, booster cables, maps, tools, a first aid kit, a fire extinguisher, sleeping bags, a flashlight, batteries, etc.
  • Fill your vehicle’s gas tank.
  • If no vehicle is available, make arrangements with friends or colleagues for transportation, or follow authorities’ instructions on where to obtain transportation.
  • Place vehicles under cover, if at all possible.
  • Fill your clean water containers.
  • Fill sinks and bathtubs with water as an extra supply for washing.
  • Adjust the thermostat on refrigerators and freezers to the coolest possible temperature. If the power goes out, food will stay cooler longer.
  • Put livestock in an enclosed area. Plan ahead to take pets with you, but be aware that many emergency shelters cannot accept animals.

As you evacuate:

  • Take only essential items with you, including at least a 1-week supply of prescription medications.
  • If you have time, turn off the gas, electricity, and water.
  • Disconnect appliances to reduce the likelihood of electrical shock when power is restored.
  • Make sure your automobile’s emergency kit is ready.
  • Follow designated evacuation routes—others may be blocked—and expect heavy traffic and delays.

If you are told to shelter where you are:

  • Keep listening to your radio or television until you are told all is safe or you are told to evacuate. Local authorities may evacuate specific areas at greatest risk in your community.
  • Close and lock all windows and outside doors.
  • Turn off all heating and air conditioning systems and fans.
  • Close the fireplace damper.
  • Organize your emergency supplies and make sure family members and friends know where the supplies are.
  • Make sure the radio is working.
  • Go to an interior room without windows that is above ground level.
  • Bring your pets with you, and be sure to bring additional food and water supplies for them.
  • It is ideal to have a hard-wired (non-portable) telephone in the room you select. Call your emergency contact—a friend or family member who does not live near the volcano—and have the phone available if you need to report a life-threatening condition. Remember that telephone equipment may be overwhelmed or damaged during an emergency.

During volcanic eruption

If you are indoors:

  • Close all windows, doors, and fireplace or woodstove dampers.
  • Turn off all fans and heating and air conditioning systems.
  • Bring pets and livestock into closed shelters.

If you are outdoors:

  • Seek shelter indoors.
  • If caught in a rockfall, roll into a ball to protect your head.
  • If near a stream or river, be aware of rising water and possible mudflows in low-lying areas. Move up-slope as quickly as possible.
  • Seek care for burns right away. Immediate care can be life saving.
  • If your eyes, nose, and throat become irritated from volcanic gases and fumes, move away from the area immediately. Your symptoms should go away when you are no longer in contact with the gases or fumes. If the symptoms continue, consult your doctor.
  • Protecting yourself during ashfall
  • Stay inside, if possible, with windows and doors closed.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Use goggles to protect your eyes.

Exposure to ash can harm your health, particularly the breathing tract!
To protect yourself while you are outdoors or while you are cleaning up ash that has gotten indoors, use an N-95 disposable respirator (also known as an “air purifying respirator”). N-95 respirators can be purchased at businesses such as hardware stores. It is important to follow directions for proper use of this respirator.

If you don’t have an N-95 respirator, you can protect yourself by using a nuisance dust mask as a last resort, but you should stay outdoors for only short periods while dust is falling. Nuisance dust masks can provide comfort and relief from exposure to relatively non-hazardous contaminants such as pollen, but they do not offer as much protection as an N-95 respirator.

Other precautions:

  • Keep your car or truck engine switched off.
  • Avoid driving in heavy ashfall. Driving will stir up ash that can clog engines and stall vehicles.
  • If you do have to drive, keep the car windows up and do not operate the air conditioning system. Operating the air conditioning system will bring in outside air and ash.

After volcanic eruption

Be prepared for additional earth movements called "aftershocks." Although most of these are smaller than the main earthquake, some may be large enough to cause additional damage or bring down weakened structures.

Because other aftereffects can include fires, chemical spills, landslides, dam breaks, and tidal waves, be sure to monitor your battery-operated radio or TV for additional emergency information.

Injuries

Check for injuries. Do not attempt to move injured or unconscious people unless they are in immediate danger from live electrical wires, flooding, or other hazards. Internal injuries may not be evident, but may be serious or life-threatening. If someone has stopped breathing, call for medical or first aid assistance immediately and begin CPR if you are trained to do so. Stop a bleeding injury by applying direct pressure to the wound.
If you are trapped, try to attract attention to your location.

Checking utilities

An earthquake may break gas, electrical, and water lines.

If you smell gas:

  • (1) open windows;
  • (2) shut off the main gas valve if possible;
  • (3) do not turn any electrical appliances or lights on or off;
  • (4) go outside;
  • (5) report the leak to authorities; and
  • (6) do not reenter the building until a utility official says it is safe to do so.

If electric wiring is shorting out, shut off the electric current at the main box.

If water pipes are damaged, shut off the supply at the main valve.

Other precautions:

  • Have chimneys inspected for cracks and damage. Do not use the fireplace if the chimney has any damage.
  • Check to see if sewage lines are intact before using bathrooms or plumbing.
  • Do not touch downed powerlines or objects in contact with downed lines. Report electrical hazards to the authorities.
  • Immediately clean up spilled medicines, drugs, flammable liquids, and other potentially hazardous materials.
  • Stay off all telephones except to report an emergency. Replace telephone receivers that may have been knocked off by the earthquake.
  • Stay away from damaged areas. Your presence could hamper relief efforts, and you could endanger yourself.
  • Cooperate fully with public safety officials. Respond to requests for volunteer assistance from police, fire fighters, emergency management officials, and relief organizations, but do not go into damaged areas unless assistance has been requested.

If you must evacuate your room:

  • Post a message, indicating where you have gone.
  • Take vital documents (wills, insurance policies, etc.), emergency supplies, and extra medications with you.
  • Confine pets to the safest location possible and make sure they have plenty of food and water. Pets will not be allowed in designated public shelters.

People with special needs/disabilities

How to prepare for earthquake/volcanic eruption:

Before:

  • Write down any specific needs, limitations, and capabilities that you have, and any medications you take. Make a copy of the list and put it in your purse or wallet.
  • Find someone (a spouse, roommate, friend, neighbor, relative, or co-worker) to help you in case of an emergency. Give them the list. You may wish to provide a spare key to your home, or let them know where they can find one in an emergency.

During:

  • If you are confined to a wheelchair, try to get under a doorway or into an inside corner, lock the wheels, and cover your head with your arms. Remove any items that are not securely attached to the wheelchair.
  • If you are able, seek shelter under a sturdy table or desk. Stay away from outer walls, windows, fireplaces, and hanging objects.
  • If unable to move from a bed or chair, protect yourself from falling objects by covering up with blankets and pillows.
  • If you are outside, go to an open area away from trees, telephone poles, and buildings, and stay there.

After:

  • If you are trapped, try to attract attention to your location.
  • Turn on your battery-operated TV or radio to receive emergency information and instructions.
  • If you can, help others in need.


(06.05.2006 - tho - last revision: 23.09.2017)

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